Angola | Into Angola’s wild(er) side
Rulan Heunis, a retired Eastern Cape engineer and businessman, has visited southwestern Angola before, but last year he and a guide explored the north and east. In the three months they spent there (no, him and his wife aren’t divorced), they became well-acquainted with their recovery equipment.
Angola is not ready to host tourists at all, and the east of the country poses a formidable challenge to experienced 4×4 enthusiasts − even those with a masochistic streak.
The distances are huge, the roads extremely bad throughout and there are simply no tourism facilities. Nowhere in eastern Angola for example, could we find a single mechanic who vaguely fits the description of reliable and acceptable.
It is, of course, a place that provides abundant opportunities to adrenaline junkies. On a majestic scale, eastern Angola offers exposure to a distinctive lifestyle, best described as “designer dilapidation”.
If you therefore want to visit the east of Angola by road, consider it carefully, and prepare well before hitting the road.
Conditions are better along the west coast.
Tourist facilities are still very limited, but the roads are generally better, fuel more readily available and there is little to no danger of landmines.
This makes the west coast very attractive to people who like exploring distant and foreign places.
In the south, the coast is an angler’s paradise, but don’t travel along the coastline south of Tombua without an experienced guide.
I go cold when I recall how the sea at Baía dos Tigres almost claimed my vehicle, and that was right at the start of the tour.
Very little information is available about planning a trip to Angola.
Some internet reports have useful information, but it’s probably best just to go, inquiring and discovering things as you go along.
It is precisely this uncertainty which makes Angola that much more interesting than other destinations to the south.
Pg 2: What did you drive?
What did you drive?
A 2005 Toyota Land Cruiser 70-Series petrol bakkie
The fuel capacity of the vehicle was increased to 410 litres to eliminate the risk of being stranded.
Were you alone?
Due to the long period I intended spending away from home, I could not find travelling companions, and I had to go it alone. I would however not recommend visiting eastern Angola with fewer than two vehicles per convoy.
Friends put me in contact with an Angolan-born guide, Petros Manuel, who lives near Ruacana in Namibia.
Petros speaks Portuguese and a number of indigenous Angolan languages.
He fled Angola in 1971, but all of his family remained behind. He lost contact with them, and was therefore eager to visit his country for the first time in more than 36 years.
What were the people like?
Save for Luanda, we encountered no crime, drunkenness, begging or pestering anywhere in the country.
The civil war seems to have severely affected the ordinary citizens who are all battling for food and shelter.
Not overly friendly, they go their own way. When asked for something, they are generally very helpful. But be prepared to pay them for hard work.
We didn’t feel unsafe anywhere we camped. Only at a few isolated places in the south, did I feel a veiled aggression − due to the history of war − towards me as a South African, but it never went any further.
The condition of the roads?
Shocking, in general. Should your vehicle have a major mechanical breakdown, you have a big problem, because there are simply no reliable workshops. On the roads between Kuito, Luena, Saurimo and Malanje, we passed dozens of brand-new trucks that the owners had simply abandoned at the roadside.
On some roads, military vehicles have caused 2 m deep ruts − much wider than a sedan’s track width – and a central ridge of up to 65 cm high which drops unexpectedly here and there. Your vehicle is guaranteed to overturn on these roads.
Your planned route?
My plan was to start the 3 000 km long route at the Ruacana border post between Namibia and Angola, and launch into a two-week visit to the Iona National Park and the surrounding area in the southwest.
Thereafter we were to explore the west coast for a month − from Baía dos Tigres, the sandy peninsula just north of the Kunene mouth, along the coast to Luanda.
We would then return to Sumbe (formerly Novo Redondo) to explore eastern Angola via Gabela, Quibala and Mussende.
The plan was then to return southwards from Luena, in the province of Moxico in the east of the country, all along the eastern border through the Cuando Cubango province, via Lumbala, Cuito Cuanavale, Menongue, Ondjiva, and eventually the Oshikango border post with Namibia.
Your eventual route?
In Luena we had to abandon the plan to travel southwards, as half the bridges across the some 50 rivers we had to cross had been destroyed or damaged in the civil war.
Furthermore, there were unmarked landmine zones, and fuel was virtually unobtainable.
We consequently decided to travel north, to Saurimo, capital of the Lunda Sul province, after which we would return to the west of the country via Malanje, capital of the province of the same name, and N’Dalantando, capital of Cuanza Norte, and head home from there.
Should/can I book?
It doesn’t make sense to book, as there are no tourism facilities. There is the odd campsite, but forget about comfortable campsites and lodges, and get used to bush camps.
Reservations also restrict you unnecessarily, should you want to change your travel plans.
The 1:2 000 000 Cartographia road map Angola, drawn up by a team of Hungarian cartographers, is good and very reliable.
It is available on the internet or at Exclusive Books (at quite a hefty price).
Use Google Earth for secondary routes that aren’t indicated on maps. On the finest resolution, you can usually see jeep tracks and settlements.
But I don’t want to go alone.
If you want to be part of an organised tour, contact Hennie Fraser of Gamsberg Safaris (www.gamsberg-safaris.com) or Rico Sakko of Angolan Adventure Safaris (www.aasafaris.com).
Pg 3: 4×4 or 4×2?
4×4 or 4×2?
Rather go with quite a heavy-duty 4×4.
Best time to go?
In winter (beginning of May to the end of September), when the climate is temperate. It can be very hot and humid during the other months, especially along the coast.
The largest part of Angola is however, quite high lying, which prevents the interior from becoming very hot.
The exception is the coastal area and the southwestern desert region, as well as the province Cuando Cubango in the southeast.
The rainy season starts middle December, and in Angola it can rain heavily. The many rivers in the count
ry are in flood regularly during the rainy season, which peaks in February and March. It is then that the roads frequently become washed away and impassable.
What do I have to take?
- Fill ’er up. For eastern Angola, your vehicle must hold enough fuel to be able to do at least 800 km in 4×4.
- Pack ’em in. Take at least two spare tyres and two extra tubes.
- DIY 101. The more self-sufficient you are, mechanically and otherwise, the better.
- Like a camel. Although water is plentiful, drinking water is usually a problem. Always have at least 5 litres drinking water per person per day at hand.
- Are those Cape Town’s lights? A GPS is useful if you wander off the main roads, and indispensable if you follow the southwestern coastal and desert route.
In case of an emergency?
- It’s going to cost how much?! Find out beforehand how to obtain spare parts from South Africa or Namibia, at which place along your route it can be delivered and at what cost.
The courier cost alone of a 20 kg parcel sent from Windhoek to Luanda for example, was R5 000. To add insult to injury, we had to wait five days for it to arrive.
- A TSYG87/2-1 please. Take a workshop manual for your specific model so that you have the spare part numbers at your fingertips.
- Rather not. You can have your vehicle recovered to one of the border posts between Angola and Namibia, but it is expensive and an unpleasant way of ending a trip.
Which spare parts?
Ask a mechanic whether there are spare parts which are indispensable, for example oil filters and fuel filters, fuses, brake pads, fuel pipes and other pipes, fan belts, shocks and bearings. The older your vehicle, the more you should consider this.
Before departing, inspect the engine for spare parts, pipes and cables that vibrate or rub excessively when the engine idles. Many a vehicle breaks down due to spare parts breaking or abrading because of shuddering and rocking on a long, bad road.
Only use car batteries with gel electrolytes that won’t leak when the vehicle overturns. Sulphuric acid leaking from a normal battery causes corrosion and permanent paint damage.
Take a complete tool set. Remember, should your vehicle break down, you will probably have to repair it yourself, right there where the vehicle is stranded.
A satellite phone is very handy in emergencies and for keeping your loved ones at home posted about your progress.
Consider a medical emergency evacuation policy − it’s not overly expensive and gives you much peace of mind.
It’s frequently part of an existing medical scheme, but it can also be obtained separately from SOS Air Rescue Africa (www.internationalsos.co.za).
At the very least pack a strong, inelastic rope that is no less than 30 m long, a high-lift jack with base and attachment fixtures, and two large steel shackles. A winch is handy, but adds a lot of weight.
A fully-equipped first-aid kit is a must. I always take the whole kit to my pharmacist for checking. He replaces the expired medicines, ensures the kit is complete, and marks everything properly.
Take a tube of Bactroban, as the slightest graze quickly turns into an abscess in Angola. Also, pack pills such as Immodium for an upset stomach.
Keep the invoices for the medicines in the kit. Police in eastern Angola are sometimes very suspicious and ask for invoices as proof that new items aren’t stolen or being imported illegally.
This disease occurs throughout Angola, but is more prevalent along the coast, around Luanda and northwards. There are almost no mosquitoes on the Angolan highlands in winter.
In summer, the country becomes quite hot and humid, especially along the coast, but in winter, the highlands can become quite cool. Pack accordingly.
Pg 4: Across the border
Across the border
- Get the paperwork. South Africans only need a passport and a visa. Namibians don’t need a visa.
Visas are obtainable from the Angolan embassy in Johannesburg. Your application has to include a letter of invitation by an Angolan citizen. At a reasonable tariff, Dean Beifus (082 973 0454) in Johannesburg can organise a letter and visa.
- Licence, please. The driver of the vehicle has to possess an international or an SADC driver’s licence, and a road permit obtainable at some R240 per vehicle at the border post.
- Say aah … You don’t need a yellow fever or any other suchlike certificate.
- Bring and braai. You can take any food for normal personal use, including meat.
- Use it or lose it! A visa has to be used within 60 days of being issued, or it expires. It is only valid for 30 days, but you can have it renewed for 30 days at the office of the ministry of immigration in all Angolan provincial capitals.
First and second extensions cost around R120 and R360, respectively.
Unless you have your visa extended − which can only be done about a week before the expiry date − additional fees of some R400 are levied for “urgent applications”. Allow 1-2 days for a visa extension.
- Grease the palm. The road permit too is only valid for 30 days. Unless you have it extended, like the visa, the border police can sometimes push you for a bribe.
Border post problems?
The newly-built Ruacana border post functions efficiently, and we didn’t have problems with officials or police. The paperwork is now also available in English, making matters easier. Allow two hours to pass through.
At the busy Oshikango border post, some police did try to get bribes. Pretend you are stupid; answer, Eu nao falla Portuguese (“I don’t understand Portuguese”) and wait. The corrupt officials are usually impatient and give up quickly when matters drag out.
Eu nao falla Portuguese!
Ensure at least one person in your group can speak Portuguese. It is essential in the case of serious mechanical or health problems.
English and Afrikaans are almost worthless as means of communication in Angola, even in the larger centres.
A good guide is as rare as a competent Angolan mechanic, but it is worthwhile to contact Reverend Theuns Eloff of Ruacana who can put you in touch with Petros. His daily tariff was R100, food and accommodation excluded.
Don’t even consider risking it in an unreliable vehicle. Mechanical problems are a serious matter in Angola. Period.
Even if a road map indicates a road as a national or main road, it means almost nothing. Accept that all roads are bad until proven otherwise. In addition, steer clear of estrada militar (military roads) − they are simply impassable with normal 4x4s.
Take out vehicle insurance beforehand which covers Angola and specifically 4×4 routes, and check that it covers vehicle recovery cost in case your vehicle has to be towed back.
The Cross Country insurance policy from Zurich Insurance (formerly SA Eagle) covers Angola, off-road conditions and includes cover for vehicle recovery and related costs.<
Such insurance is obtainable from the specialist Peter Norenius of Executive Advisory Services (011 888 1349, www.4x4insurance.co.za).
Inconveniences such as car or camera theft, begging and public drunkenness are almost completely unknown. In congested traffic in downtown Luanda, there is sometimes a problem with urchins yanking the car doors open and grabbing cellphones.
What do I eat?
- Fresh from the oven. Bread is readily available everywhere, in the form of the ubiquitous Portuguese bread rolls, pau.
- No dairy. Butter and milk are unobtainable – use margarine and long-life milk.
- For the vegetarians. You won’t find lettuce, but tomatoes, potatoes, sweet potatoes and cabbage are readily available.
- Fruit feast. Oranges, mangoes, apples, papaws and bananas are readily available in season, but become scarcer in the east.
- Tinned gold. Tinned food is 2-3 times more expensive than in South Africa.
- Back to basics. Basic foodstuffs such as flour, sugar, oil, salt, tinned fish and meat and vegetables are readily available at small grocery shops.
- Meat is meat … Good meat is often difficult to find − rather take your own prepacked frozen meat and fish.
- Saide! (Portuguese for “Cheers!”) Beer such as N’gola is readily available, relatively cheap (the same as in South Africa) and of a good quality. Spirits are much more expensive.
Pg 5: Fuel?
This is not always available, and it’s scarce everywhere − even in Luanda. Take as much fuel as possible and fill up when you can.
In some larger centres, it can take up to two weeks for filling stations that have run dry to get fuel. On the black market, you pay 2-3 times the pump price.
Remember, you can’t get lead-free petrol in Angola. Petrol costs about R3.80/litre and diesel some R3/litre.
It is almost impossible to get cash in Angolan kwanza outside Angola’s borders. Exchange small amounts of American dollars in Angola.
Dollars can be easily and quickly exchanged at banks in the larger centres. At markets in towns, you will always find informal traders walking around with fists-full of kwanzas to exchange. Filling stations mostly accept both currencies.
The rand and Namibian dollar are worthless in Angola, except in towns right next to the Angolan southern border.
- Between Tombua and Namibe. Halfway between Tombua and Namibe is the well-known fishing camp Flamingo of the South African Rico Sakko (www.aasafaris.com).
It is right next to the sea, has first-class accommodation and camping facilities, and you can eat there too.
Personnel at Flamingo can also assist with guides, should you want to explore the coast further to the south.
From the main road, the turnoff to the camp is indicated by a small sign.
- Namibe. It is worthwhile to visit Mariquita Bay, just north of Namibe. It is a small, 100 m long sandy beach, with high, perpendicular cliffs on both sides. There are no facilities or fresh water. Bar two or three locals minding goats and pigs, the place is deserted.
There are no signs to Mariquita Bay at the turnoff (at S14.752230 E12.358094) from the tarred road between Namibe and Lucira. Halfway down the turnoff road, there is a turnoff to the right, indicated on a big stone as “Furado” − just keep left there. The beach is some 17 km further.
- North of Namibe. Although finding accommodation further north is hard, you can overnight on the beach at the fishing village and former slave trade centre of Quicombo just before Sumbe. Authorisation by the local police is required.
At some R100 per night per vehicle, you can rent a palm shelter on the beach, where fishing boats usually dock. The town has a seldom-visited fort and slave prison.
At Sumbe (formerly Novo Redondo), a few restaurants right on the beach offer well-prepared seafood dishes, such as prawns and crayfish, some of which weigh 10 kg each!
- North of Sumbe. Further north, you can sleep at Cabo Ledo, where there is also a good restaurant and accommodation on the beach.
- Luanda. Just before Luanda, at the mouth and northern bank of the Kwanza River, is the Kwanza River Lodge, which also belongs to Rico Sakko. You have to book, and unfortunately, there is no campsite.
- Any other place. Except for the places mentioned, bush camping is what awaits you.
When staying in a town, it is always a good idea to report to the police first. It lessens the suspicion, which you’ll encounter especially in the east.
Landmines remain a serious problem, especially because you mostly have to sleep in the bush next to roads outside towns. And it is often impossible to find a campsite without chancing it.
The danger of landmines increases as you move east. Initially, landmine zones are clearly marked, but the closer you get to Luena, the murkier matters become.
The rule is, only use roads which have clear and fresh tracks of vehicles, people or animals. Never leave the road, not even for 30 cm, and don’t turn off the main routes without inquiring from the locals.
Be especially cautious at bridges, where most military ambushes were set up during the civil war.
Angola has six national parks, some of which exist in name only. The exception is the Kissama National Park, at the mouth of the Kwanza River, south of Luanda. A multinational group have started the Kissama Foundation to get the park going again.
A part of the park was recently fenced off, and under the guidance of Prof Wouter van Hoven of the Centre for Wildlife Management in Pretoria, a recovery plan has been set up. Thirty elephants, seven eland, a number of roans, zebras, blue wildebeest, giraffes and ostriches have been brought from South Africa and Botswana.
The park extends over more than a million hectares, about half the size of the Kruger Park.
Kissama isn’t really geared for tourism yet. In the park, there is a camp with air-conditioned huts. Just don’t expect to see a lot of game. Within a year the situation will probably change drastically as the game start multiplying.
Such is the progress of the road-rebuilding programme in Angola, that the roads should be much more acceptable within 5-10 years. With its economy growing at 17%, it is just a matter of time before it will be just another “tame” African country.
Pg 6: Rulan’s route
Rulan Heunis planned a 3 000 km long route through Angola which included a jaunt to the southeast. But plans are made to be changed. He eventually travelled from Ruacana in the south, along the west coast, to the northeast and the north.
Beyond the border.
The roads south of the harbour town of Tombua (formerly Port Alexandre) are jeep tracks. In the mountainous areas between Ruacana and Iona the road is quite bad, but further along over the sand and gravel plains, it becomes reasonably good up to Tombua.
Foz do Cunene to Tombu
There is no road and the only option is to drive between the low-water and high-water mark next to the sea − over some 150 km.
This stretch is extremely dangerous. Not only is the horizontal distance between the high-water and low-water mark only 5 m in some places, but the intertidal zone slopes very steeply, and its sand is relatively soft. On around half of the route, there is no negotiable surface between the high-water mark and the high coastal dunes.
Should you therefore get stuck there during the incoming tide, you are in serious trouble. You can also only drive the route at low water, and therefore it takes fine planning to synchronise your drive with the tide.
During rough seas, it is impossible to do the drive, even at low tide.
Furthermore, it is a very remote area, and the possibility of someone passing by who can help you, is very small. Even should someone pass by, chances are he wouldn’t help you because he would be trying to escape the incoming tide himself.
In some places near the lagoons at Baía dos Tigres, very soft, thick layers of clay lurk invisibly just under the sand. Should you drive into it, the vehicle sinks in up to its chassis like greased lightning. Therefore, always keep 1m from the waterline.
Despite having been warned about it, I got stuck there. We sweated for four hours to extract the Cruiser. By then, the waves were crashing over the back of the vehicle …
Tombua to Namibe.
From Tombua to a few kilometres before the harbour town of Namibe, the road has been tarred and is in a good condition, by Angolan standards.
Namibe to Lucira.
The road has been tarred.
Lucira to Cimo.
From Lucira the road changes to an extremely difficult jeep track which initially snakes through the mountains running all along the coast. The road then cuts inland to Cimo.
The last part of the road has been largely washed away because it hasn’t been maintained in decades, and it runs at an acute angle to boot. It is definitely one of Angola’s worst roads.
If you want to tackle the road, forget about time and drive dead slowly (<5 km/h) or stop feeling sorry for your vehicle!
We kissed our new double shock suspension goodbye there when the mountings first started cracking and then came apart. (Afterwards, we had to wait 10 days in Luanda for new mountings from South Africa.)
Cimo to Dombe Grande.
The jeep gravel track from Cimo northwards is initially in a poor condition, but it improves as you approach Dombe Grande.
Dombe Grande to Lobito.
It is tarred, but full of potholes, all the way to Lobito.
Lobito to Sumbe.
It starts as a wide gravel road, badly worn and full of potholes, but improves somewhat up to Quicombo, just before Sumbe. Traffic delays due to road rebuilding are frequent.
Sumbe to Luanda (and back).
Good tarred road up to Luanda, but watch out for large potholes and stray animals − it remains a very dangerous road.
From Luanda, we returned to Sumbe in the south to tackle the road to the east.
Sumbe to Quibala.
This quite broad, dusty gravel road is full of potholes but not too bad otherwise.
It ascends the Angolan highland through a very mountainous area, with dense, impenetrable tropical forests on the mountain slopes, and impressive views.
The first part of the road tracks the Queve River. A wide waterfall can be seen where the road crosses the river.
As you ascend, the landscape and vegetation change gradually.
The landscape becomes more broken up, with rolling hills, dotted with smallish, lone mountain peaks. The flora changes to grassy plains with palm, banana, mango and pawpaw trees.
At Quibala, the reality of the decades-long civil war hit us the first time. Mortars, shells or bombs have damaged just about every building still standing.
Everywhere you drive, you pass blown-up wrecks of tanks and other military vehicles − during the trip, we found more than 200 tanks and 800 trucks along the eastern Angolan roads.
Quibala to Mussende.
From Quibala, you leave the “civilised” part of Angola. The road to Mussende is passable, but you move very slowly, and many small rivers run through it.
From there on, almost no bridge remained standing during the war. Most of the bridges have been fixed temporarily, and crossing each one is a nightmare. With extreme care, and a little road building here and there, one can eventually get through.
Mussende to Kuito.
The tarred road to Kuito, capital of the Bié province, is quite good, but also full of potholes. It runs through a beautiful environment. From there on, we would long for tarred roads, potholes and all, because the fun was about to start.
Kuito itself, as well as all the other towns and cities we visited in the east, offers little to the visitor, especially as far as tourist attractions go. Fuel (if available) and food can obviously be replenished there.
Many state buildings have been demolished or damaged by bombs, and although we found no signs of famine, poverty is a general problem. Services such as water, electricity and sewerage are mostly nonexistent, and streets are in a shocking state.
Kuito to Luena.
From Kuito we drove more than 400 km all along the famed Benguela railway line, to Luena, capital of the province Moxico.
The railway line was built by the Chinese, with the support of former presidents Kenneth Kaunda and Julius Nyerere, of Zambia and Tanzania respectively, in an effort to decrease these countries’ dependency on South African harbours and transport infrastructure.
The last trains ran on this line in 1983, when the bridges along the line were blown up. We had to cross the damaged railway bridge over the Kwanza River at Cuanza, because there was no alternative.
The bridge has collapsed in the middle, which is partly submerged. We had to “borrow” steel sleepers from the railway line to create a roadway over the large holes in the bridge.
On this part of the route we encountered the worst roads in Angola − it reaches a high (or rather a low) between Cuemba and Munhango.
This jeep track turns into a nightmare experience just east of Cuemba.
Due to the great number of landmines planted there, landmine sweepers have given up on it for the time being. A detour is used instead, cutting back to the “main road” just before Munhango.
Our vehicle keeled over ten times on the deeply-rutted detour, sustaining body damage to the tune of R22 000. Due to the densely-wooded roadside, I struggled more than a day at one point to make satellite phone contact with my insurance broker to report the damage.
It took us anything from ten minutes to five hours to right the vehicle with a winch, inelastic ropes and a high-lift jack. In one instance, a truckload of soldiers took mercy on us. Their officer barked an order, spades and ropes were handed out, and within ten minutes the Cruiser was back on all fours.
But worse was to come − I had to pull over and give my dispirited guide a pep talk over a cup of strong coffee. Due to the
mental stress, my immune system also became shaky, and I started developing ulcers on my fingers and legs.
Uncertainty about the road ahead exacerbated matters. At that late stage however, we had to press on − it was a question of grit your teeth and drive on, despite the consequences.
Luena to Saurimo.
Between Luena and Saurimo the miombo woodlands become very dense, almost turning into rain forest here and there.
The 250 km long road has largely been tarred, but it is pockmarked by potholes and you can’t exceed 20 km/h.
Just north of Luena, at Biula, where the road crosses the great east-flowing Cassai River (which eventually flows into the Congo River), we came across an impressive, large waterfall. It is hundreds of metres wide and falls over a great distance. Dense rain forest covers the lower part of the waterfall, making it invisible from the road. On windless days when the river is running strongly, mist enshrouds the area, creating a fairytale atmosphere.
Saurimo to Dondo.
From Saurimo we travelled without incident through Malanje and N’Dalantando back to Dondo, a distance of 820 km, to join the main road running south from Luanda to Huambo, capital of the province of the same name.
The first 50 km of this road is good. Thereafter it worsens considerably, with large potholes, up to about 50 km from Malanje, after which it becomes good up to the town.
From Malanje there now is a brand new tarred road, up to about 30 km from N’Dalantando, where it worsens again and remains bad up to about 30 km of Dondo, where the road becomes very good and is tarred. Set aside three difficult days to drive this route.
The area around Dondo offers some of the most beautiful landscapes in Angola. The area is quite high lying, relatively cool and has a high average rainfall.
Dondo to Huambo.
We covered the 420 km tarred road from Dondo to Huambo without incident, but it boggles the mind why authorities haven’t fixed the numerous potholes. Just filling the potholes with gravel will make a big difference.
Huambo to Lubango.
The 335 km main road from Huambo to Lubango is so worn-out, in some places it no longer resembles a road.
However, we found a “new” route: at Caconda, 140 km from Huambo, turn left onto the secondary road to Matala.
About 15 km from Caconda, turn left again on a tertiary road, which turns into a brand-new and beautiful gravel road running to Kipungu. From there a brand new tarred road takes you almost to Lubango. The last 40 km of the road is still being built, but it should be completed soon.
Originally published in Drive Out #24 | April – May 2008